Cosmonautics Day is an anniversary celebrated on April 12. It’s dedicated to the first manned space flight made on 12 April 1961 by the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. Gagarin circled the Earth for 1 hour and 48 minutes aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft. To mark this international milestone, Cosmonautics Day is celebrated in Russia and various countries around the world.
Angara is the name of a family of modular space-launch vehicles now under development in Russia.
The product line includes small- to heavy-lift launchers featuring payload capabilities of 3.5 to 38 tonnes when launching into low Earth orbit.
The different Angara versions are made up of varying numbers of Universal Rocket Modules: the URM-1 for the first and second stages and the URM-2 for the third stage.
The small-lift Angara 1.2LV uses one URM-1, while the most powerful variant, Angara 5, uses a cluster of five URM-1 common core boosters.
Each common core booster is equipped with one high performance single-combustion chamber RD-191 engine.
Angara launchers do not use an upper stage when delivering payloads to low orbits. For higher energy orbits such as geosynchronous transfer orbit and geostationary orbit, Angara 5 uses the Briz-M upper stage powered by one S5.98M engine.
The Angara-А5.1L launched in December 2014 consisted of a three-stage Angara-А5 and an ascent unit comprising a satellite mass-size mockup installed on the Briz-M upper stage booster.
The Angara A5 with a Briz-M upper stage launching from Plesetsk Cosmodrome can lift 24.5 tonnes to low Earth orbit, 5.4 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit and 2.8 tonnes to geostationary orbit.
The lift capabilities of the Angara A5V, which is set to be launched from Vostichny Cosmodrome, will be 37.5 tonnes, 13 tonnes and 8 tonnes respectively.
Plans call for the development of a new cryogenic upper stage, the KVTK. It would use the RD-0146D engine and allow Angara A5 to bring up to 2 tonnes more mass to geosynchronous transfer orbit.
The high degree of standardization in the Angara family, combined with its modularity, allows any member of the Angara family to be launched from the same launch pad.